Posted by: Artur Machado | January 16, 2012

RwP: Following the trail of the new Brazilian concept

1st step: During the 1980s, calls for a “droit d´ingérence” started to pop up in international debates. With the humanitarian disasters of the 1990s, the CSNU deployed some “humanitarian interventions”, sometimes invocating security reasons to legitimize them.

2nd step: In 2000, the strength of the humanitarian ideals portrayed by the Millennium Report of the UN Secretary-General, entitled We the Peoples, motivated Canada to launch the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty (ICISS). In 2001, the ICISS put forth a report called Responsibility to Protect (R2P), in which the international community should take responsibility over the protection of core humanitarian needs of national collectivities.

3rd step: Meanwhile, the second wave of UN reforms took place. Between 2004 and 2005, as an outcome of the Report of the Secretary-General’s High level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change (A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility), the Peacebuilding Commission was created, framed to establishing a link between the UNSC and the ECOSOC.

4th step: World leaders brought the R2P concept to deliberation within United Nations. After the 2005 UN summit took place in New York, articles 138 and 139 of the World Summit Outcome Document (A/RES/60/1) define R2P as the subsidiary responsibility of the international community to ensure the core humanitarian rights of individuals and collectivities, when national governments fail to do so. In 2006, the concept was recalled by a UNSC resolution on the protection of Civilians during Armed Conflicts (S/RES/1674). In 2009, UN Secretary-General released the report Implementing the Responsibility to Protect, which led to a renewed debate in the General Assembly.

5th step: After revealing concerns about the political limits of R2P, Brazil found the opportunity to launch discussions about a new and complementary concept: the Responsibility while Protecting (RwP). The concept was first mentioned during President Dilma’s opening speech at the 66th session of the UNGA. During a UNSC open debate on the protection of civilians, held on November 9th, the Brazilian delegation entertained a concept paper in which it calls for method and responsibility when the international community is to resort to the use of force. On February 21st, Minister Patriota and Professor Edward Luck co-chaired an open debate regarding the concept and the participants’ speechs are held available by the International Coalition for the R2P.

***

1 º passo: Durante a década de 1980, surgiram apelos sobre um “droit d’ingérence”, em debates internacionais. Com os desastres humanitários da década de 1990, o CSNU aprovou mandatos para algumas “intervenções humanitárias”, por vezes invocando razões de segurança para legitimá-las.

2 º passo: Em 2000, a força dos ideais humanitários trazidos pelo Relatório do Milénio do Secretário-Geral das Nações Unidas, intitulado We the Peoples, motivou o Canadá a lançar a Comissão Internacional sobre Intervenção e Soberania do Estado (ICISS). Em2001, a ICISS publicou o relatório chamado Responsabilidade de Proteger (R2P), segundo o qual a comunidade internacional deveria assumir a responsabilidade sobre a proteção do núcleo necessidades humanitárias das coletividades nacionais.

3 º passo: Em paralelo a esse debate, ocorria a segunda onda de reformas da ONU. Entre 2004 e 2005, como resultado do relatório do Painel de Alto Nível sobre Ameaças, Desafios e Mudança (A More Secure World: Our Shared Responsibility), a Comissão de Consolidação da Paz foi criada com formato pensado para estabelecer uma ligação entre o CSNU e o ECOSOC.

4 º passo: Os líderes mundiais trouxeram o conceito de R2P à deliberação dentro das Nações Unidas. Depois da cúpula da ONU que teve lugar em Nova York, em 2005, os artigos 138 e 139 do Documento Final da Cimeira Mundial (A/RES/60/1) definem o R2P como a responsabilidade subsidiária da comunidade internacional para garantir os direitos humanitários fundamentais de indivíduos e coletividades, quando os governos nacionais não conseguem fazê-lo. Em 2006, o conceito foi recordado por uma resolução do CSNU relativa à protecção de civis durante conflitos armados (S/RES/1674). Em 2009, o Secretário-Geral da ONU publicou relatório sobre a implementação do R2P, o que levou a novo debate na AGNU.

5 º passo: Depois de revelar, repetidas vezes, suas preocupações com os limites políticos do R2P, o Brasil encontrou, em 2011, a oportunidade para lançar discussões sobre um conceito novo e complementar: a Responsabilidade ao Proteger (RwP). O conceito foi primeiramente mencionado durante o discurso da presidenta Dilma Rousseff durante a abertura da 66a sessão da AGNU. Durante um debate aberto no Conselho Segurança sobre a proteção de civis, realizado em 09 de novembro , a delegação brasileira preparou uma nota conceitual, na qual se pede por método e responsabilidade nas ocasiões em que a comunidade internacional decide recorrer ao uso da força. Em 21 de fevereiro, o Ministro Patriota e o professor Edward Luck copresidiram um debate aberto sobre a RwP e os discursos dos participantes foram disponibilizados pela Coalizão Internacional pelo R2P.

***

The following are the paragraphs from the World Summit Outcome Document that mention R2P:

Responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity

138. Each individual State has the responsibility to protect its populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. This responsibility entails the prevention of such crimes, including their incitement, through appropriate and necessary means. We accept that responsibility and will act in accordance with it. The international community should, as appropriate, encourage and help States to exercise this responsibility and support the United Nations in establishing an early warning capability.

139. The international community, through the United Nations, also has the responsibility to use appropriate diplomatic, humanitarian and other peaceful means, in accordance with Chapters VI and VIII of the Charter, to help to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. In this context, we are prepared to take collective action, in a timely and decisive manner, through the Security Council, in accordance with the Charter, including Chapter VII, on a case-by-case  basis and in cooperation with relevant regional organizations as appropriate,  should peaceful means be inadequate and national authorities are manifestly failing to protect their populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. We stress the need for the General Assembly to continue consideration of the responsibility to protect populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity and its implications, bearing in mind the principles of the Charter and international law. We also intend to commit ourselves, as necessary and appropriate, to helping States build capacity to protect their populations from genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity and to assisting those which are under stress before crises and conflicts break out.

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